Historical Version s - view previous versions of standard. More E The grain size of specimens with two phases, or a phase and a constituent, can be measured using a combination of two methods, a measurement of the volume fraction of the phase and an intercept or planimetric count see Section The test methods may also be used for any structures having appearances similar to those of the metallic structures shown in the comparison charts. The three basic procedures for grain size estimation are:. The precision of the method is a function of the number of grains counted.
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ASTM E has standard test methods for average grain sizing. The comparison method does not require the tester to count grains, but rather comparing of the grain structure to a series of graded images, either in the form of a wall chart, clear plastic overlays, or a grain counting eyepiece reticle.
There appears to be a general bias in that comparison grain size ratings claim that the grain size is somewhat coarser than it actually is. Test Method E , one of the most widely cited ASTM standards, is concerned with the measurement of grain size when the grains are equiaxed in shape non-deformed , although it does contain some information about measurement of grain size when the grains have been elongated by processing.
There are other situations where Test Method E is not helpful and other standards have been developed. For example, certain alloys may not exhibit a uniform distribution of grain sizes. Each of these grain reticles was created for use with a 10x microscope objective.
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ASTM E112 Test Using Grain Reticles
Active view current version of standard. Other Historical Standards. More E These test methods may also be applied to nonmetallic materials with structures having appearances similar to those of the metallic structures shown in the comparison charts. These test methods apply chiefly to single phase grain structures but they can be applied to determine the average size of a particular type of grain structure in a multiphase or multiconstituent specimen.