Baermann funnel A device used to extract nematodes Nematoda from a soil sample or plant material. A muslin bag containing the sample is submerged in water in a funnel sealed at the lower end by a rubber tube and clip. Being heavier than water, the nematodes pass through the muslin and sink to the bottom. After about 12 hours they can be collected by drawing off the bottom centimetre of water.
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Validation of the Berlese- funnel technique for thrips extraction. Following parameters were investigated: cleaning of the funnel , temperature during isolation, detection limit and duration of the isolation period.
Thrips fuscipennis was collected from heavily infected rosehip and used as target organism. Besides orchids, artificially contaminated maple leaves Acer pseudoplatanus were used for the validation. Results showed that thrips and other organisms can be present alive or dead in the funnel after removing the treated plants and can contaminate the next sample or isolate.
Cleaning of the funnel with a vacuum cleaner and compressed-air apparatus is necessary before running a new extraction. Contamination of the recipient is also possible from the environment. This can be avoided by closing the opening between the funnel and the recipient. To reach an optimal temperature for isolation of the thrips a 60 Watt bulb is necessary. The results showed that the maximum temperature doesn't reach a temperature above 51 degrees C, the average temperatures were situated between 35, 74 degrees C and 39, 38 degrees C.
A 40 Watt bulb doesn't create enough heat to guarantee an efficient isolation of the thrips; the average temperature was 34, 74 degrees C and the maximum temperature 36, 80 degrees C. Based on the results we can conclude that an isolation time of 20 hours is necessary to obtain accurate data.
A simple modification of the Baermann method for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis. The diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infections is routinely made by microscopic observation of larvae in stool samples, a low sensitivity method, or by other, most effective methods, such as the Baermann or agar culture plate methods.
We propose in this paper a practical modification of Baermann method. One hundred and six stool samples from alcoholic patients were analyzed using the direct smear test, agar culture plate method, the standard Baermann method, and its proposed modification.
For this modification the funnel used in the original version of the method is substituted by a test tube with a rubber stopper, perforated to allow insertion of a pipette tip. The tube with a fecal suspension is inverted over another tube containing 6 ml of saline solution and incubated at 37 degrees C for at least 2 h.
The saline solution from the second tube is centrifuged and the pellet is observed microscopically. Larva of S. Five samples were positive using the agar culture plate method, and only in two samples the larva were observed using direct microscopic observation of fecal smears.
Data obtained by the modified Baermann method suggest that this methodology may helps concentrate larvae of S. An RF-only ion- funnel for extraction from high-pressure gases. An RF ion- funnel technique has been developed to extract ions from a high-pressure 10 bar noble-gas environment into a vacuum 10 -6 mbar.
Detailed simulations have been performed and a prototype has been developed for the purpose of extracting Ba ions from Xe gas with high efficiency. With this prototype, ions have been extracted for the first time from high-pressure xenon gas and argon gas.
Systematic studies have been carried out and compared to simulations. PubMed Central. Storage of nematodes in soil at C for 1 to 16 weeks greatly increased nematode recovery by a sugar-flotation-sieving procedure. One week of exposure to C killed all nematodes except Pratylenchus zeae and Tylenchorhynchus claytoni which were recoverable in decreasing numbers up to 10 weeks by the Baermann funnel method.
Optimum storage temperature for survival of most nematode species was 13 C. The numbers of Meloidogyne incognita, T. This was also true for Helicotylenchtts dihystera and Xiphinema americanum extracted by the Baermann funnel technique, whereas the numbers retrieved by the sugar-flotation-sieving method decreased slightly.
All species except T. This study quantitatively determined the extraction of lead from CRT funnel glass and examined the mechanisms of thermally reducing lead in the products of sintering Pb-glass with carbon in the pre-heated furnace. The experimentally derived results indicate that a The formation of viscous semi-liquid glass blocked the oxygen supply between the interaction of C and Pb-glass, and was highly effective for the extraction of metallic Pb. A maximum of The findings indicated that with proper controls, using C as an inexpensive reagent can effectively reduce treatment time and energy, which is crucial to a waste-to-resource technology for economically recovering lead from the waste CRT glass.
All rights reserved. The simplest "field" methods for extractin of nematodes from plants, wood, insects and soil, with additional description how to keep extracted nematodes alive for a long time.
The simplest modification of the dynamic extraction method using cottonwool filter based on the Baermann funnel principle, is described. This modification excludes the funnel because a great share of Sticky worms attach to sloping walls of a funnel and thus do not reach the collector Eppendorf tube. But the main principle of the Baermann funnel is used, I. This principle is illustrated because it has never been described before.
In the proposed modification any sloping walls in the extraction paths are excluded and thus the probability to attach sticky nemotodes to walls is also excluded; only cylindrical equipment with abrupt vertical walls is used; procedures are extremely simplified to be user-friendly for beginners: only filter cotton pads , Eppendorf tubes, plastic glasses and narrow PVC tubing are applied.
The new simplified modification allows one to collect nematodes by non-professional workers, e. As an addition, an efficient method to maintain extracted nematodes alive is proposed, using the "effect of water film" in foam rubber inside the Eppendorf tube.
To maintain nematodes alive during several months it is recommended to suppress bacteria via addition of 0. Extraction of lead from waste CRT funnel glass by generating lead sulfide - An approach for electronic waste management. In this paper, a novel and effective process for the detoxification and reutilization of waste CRT funnel glass was developed by generating lead sulfide precipitate via a high-temperature melting process.
The central function in this process was the generation of lead sulfide, which gathered at the bottom of the crucible and was then separated from the slag. Sodium carbonate was used as a flux and reaction agent, and sodium sulfide was used as a precipitating agent. The experimental results revealed that the lead sulfide recovery rate initially increased with an increase in the amount of added sodium carbonate, the amount of sodium sulfide, the temperature, and the holding time and then reached an equilibrium value.
The glass slag can be made into sodium and potassium silicate by hydrolysis in an environmental and economical process.
The Enrollment Funnel. A smart marketing plan creates emotional attachment and loyalty in a school's prospective students, but how does a school go about creating this type of positive environment?. In this brief paper, the author describes a step-by-step approach that he created--the enrollment funnel. The enrollment funnel is a systematic method of moving…. Funnel -web spider bite. Male funnel -web spiders are more poisonous A low molecular weight serine protease: Purification and characterization from Hippasa agelenoides funnel web spider venom gland extract.
Despite the long history [Kaiser, E. Enzymatic activity of spider venoms. In: Buckley, E. Therefore, the present study describes the isolation and characterization of a low molecular weight serine protease from Hippasa agelenoides venom gland extract. The protease Hag-protease was purified to homogeneity using the combination of gel-permeation and ion-exchange chromatography.
The molecular mass was found to be Hag-protease was optimally active at pH 7. It hydrolyzed proteins such as casein, fibronectin and collagen type-I dose dependently but did not degrade gelatin and collagen type-IV. The isolated protease was non-lethal and devoid of hemorrhagic, myotoxic and edema forming activities. The light microscopy of Hag-protease treated skin tissue sections at the site of injection showed extensive damage of extracellular matrix ECM of hypodermis without causing any damage to blood vessels and capillaries.
Similar damage of ECM of muscle tissue sections without affecting myocytes was noticed. Hag-protease was found to be procoagulant in property when studied plasma recalcification time. Ion funnel device. An ion funnel device is disclosed.
A first pair of electrodes is positioned in a first direction. A second pair of electrodes is positioned in a second direction. The device includes an RF voltage source and a DC voltage source.
A RF voltage with a superimposed DC voltage gradient is applied to the first pair of electrodes, and a DC voltage gradient is applied to the second pair of electrodes.
Nematodes are extracted from soil using Baermann funnels and centrifugal flotation. The presence of RKN J2 can be detected among large numbers of other plant-parasitic and free-living nematodes.
The procedure was tested with several soil types and crops from different locations and was found to be sensitive and accurate. Analysis of unknowns and spiked soil samples indicated that detection sensitivity was the same as or higher than by microscopic examination. Solar cells using quantum funnels. Colloidal quantum dots offer broad tuning of semiconductor bandstructure via the quantum size effect. Devices involving a sequence of layers comprised of quantum dots selected to have different diameters, and therefore bandgaps, offer the possibility of funneling energy toward an acceptor.
Here we report a quantum funnel that efficiently conveys photoelectrons from their point of generation toward an intended electron acceptor. Using this concept we build a solar cell that benefits from enhanced fill factor as a result of this quantum funnel. This concept addresses limitations on transport in soft condensed matter systems and leverages their advantages in large-area optoelectronic devices and systems.
Evaluation of Baermann apparatus sedimentation time on recovery of Strongylus vulgaris and S. Traditional methods of diagnosing equine Strongylinae infections require culturing feces, sedimenting the culture media in Baermann apparatuses, collecting the sediment, and morphologically identifying recovered third stage larvae. However, this method is plagued by low negative predictive values.
This study evaluated sedimentation time within the Baermann apparatus by comparing larval recovery from the traditionally collected sediment, "sediment 1", and from the usually discarded remaining fluid contents, "sediment 2", of the Baermann apparatus after 12, 24, and 48 h.
A grand total of , larvae were recovered and examined. Sedimentation time did not significantly influence total larval recovery. At all three durations, significantly more Cyathostominae and Strongylus vulgaris larvae were covered from sediment 1 than from sediment 2. In contrast to S. This information will allow researchers and practitioners to make more informed decisions in choosing appropriate larval recovery techniques, balancing.
On the Methodology of Nematode Extraction from Field Samples: Baermann Funnel Modifications
Routine quantitative nematode extraction for pest management purposes remains a problem. There is need for more knowledge of the parameters limiting efficiency of the various available methods. Sedimentation rates for several species of nematodes have been confirmed as slow and highly variable and therefore not suitable for quantitative separation of nematodes. Funnel losses with clean and unpitted glassware, whether closed or open stemmed, with or without misting, are negligible so long as misting periods are neither inadequate nor excessive; i. Tissue paper used to retain soil, sievings, or other substrate in the funnel extraction can greatly inhibit the passage of nematodes depending upon the tissue properties and the nematode species. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List J Nematol v.
Extracting Nematodes from Soil with a Baermann Funnel