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This text has not yet been proofread. If you find a mistake though, please let me know! Thayer's Note: Before e-mailing me with questions, comments, or corrections involving the numbering of Books, chapters, and sections in this text, please read the orientation page. How the temple of Apollo on the Palatine was dedicated chap. How Caesar delivered a speech in the senate, as if he were retiring from the sole rulership, and afterwards assigned to that body its provinces chaps.
About the appointment of the governors sent to the provinces chaps. How Caesar was given the title of Augustus chap. About the names which the emperors receive chaps. How the Saepta were dedicated chap. How Caesar fought against the Astures and Cantabri chap. How Galatia began to be governed by Romans chap. How the Basilica of Neptune and the Baths of Agrippa were dedicated chap. How the Pantheon was dedicated chap.
How Augustus was freed from the obligation of obeying the laws chap. How an expedition was made against Arabia Felix chap. Duration of time, four years, in which there were the following magistrates consuls here enumerated:— B. Agrippa II. Agrippa III. Taurus II. Norbanus C. Calpurnius Cn. Moreover, he completed and dedicated the temple of Apollo on the Palatine , the precinct surrounding it, and the libraries.
He cancelled all obligations which had been given to the public treasury previous to the battle of Actium, except those secured by buildings, and he burned the old notes of those who were indebted to the state. And inasmuch as he had put into effect very many illegal and unjust regulations during the factional strife and the wars, especially in the period of his joint rule with Antony and Lepidus, he abolished them all by a single decree, setting the end of his sixth consulship as the time for their expiration.
For what each one of my hearers would not wish to do himself, he does not like to believe, either, when another claims to have done it, especially as everyone is jealous of anybody who is superior to him and so is more prone to disbelieve any utterance that is above his own standard.
My military is in the finest condition as regards both loyalty and strength; there is money and there are allies; and, most important of all, you and the people are so disposed toward me that you would distinctly wish to have me at your head. Since, then, Fortune, by using me, has graciously restored to you peace without treachery and harmony without faction, receive back also your liberty and the republic; take over the army and the subject provinces, and govern yourselves as has been your wont.
Therefore, if there is any one of you who believes that no man except me can really and sincerely hold to such ideals and give them utterance, at least let him believe it of me. The conquest of Gaul, the enslavement of Pannonia, the subjugation of Moesia, the overthrow of Egypt? Yet these are greater and more important deeds than even all our forefathers together performed in all previous time. And as for the business of the commonwealth, it would be carried on far better by all in common, inasmuch as it would be transacted by many men together instead of being dependent upon some one man.
As for immortality, we could not possibly achieve it; but by living nobly and by dying nobly we do in a sense gain even this boon. And what are these suggestions? In the first place, guard vigilantly the established laws and change none of them; for what remains fixed, even though it be inferior, is more advantageous than what is always subject to innovations, even though it seems to be superior.
Treat your private means as the common property of the state, but refrain from the public funds as belonging to others.
Guard strictly what you already have, but never covet that which does not belong to you. Have your arms always in hand, but do not use them either against one another or against those who keep the peace.
For you may easily understand from these hints how all other matters should be handled. Consequently, though they were variously affected by his announcement, their views were the same. When this was done, he was eager to establish the monarchy in very truth.
And wishing, even then, to lead the Romans a long way from the idea that he was at all monarchical in his purposes, Caesar undertook for only ten years the government of the provinces assigned him; for he promised to reduce them to order within this period, and boastfully added that, if they should be pacified sooner, he would the sooner restore them, to the senate.
This province alone he assigned to a knight, the one we have already named, 6 for the reasons mentioned there. Next he ordained that the governors of senatorial provinces should be annual magistrates, chosen by lot, except when a senator enjoyed a special privilege because of the large number of his children or because of his marriage.
Thus, of these two titles which had been in vogue so long under the republic, he gave that of praetor to the men chosen by him, on the ground that from very early times it had been associated with warfare, calling them propraetors; and he gave the name of consul to the others, on the ground that their duties were more peaceful, styling them proconsuls.
All the propraetors alike employ five lictors, and, indeed, all of them except those who were ex-consuls at the time of appointment to governorships receive their title from this very number. In the one case, the emperor would commission a governor to any province he wished and when he wished, and many secured provincial commands while still praetors or consuls, as sometimes happens even at the present day. For, although a certain change was made in regard to these men also, yet it soon lapsed and it will be sufficient to mention it at the proper time.
To the others, which are called the imperial provinces and have more than one citizen-legion, are sent officials who are to govern them as lieutenants; these are appointed by the emperor himself, generally from the ex-praetors, though also from the ex-quaestors, or men who have held an office between the praetorship and the quaestorship.
In this matter he follows the custom then instituted by Caesar. For both this practice and the giving of salaries to them and to the other officials was established at this time.
This was not assigned to them all on the same basis, but approximately as their needs required; and the procurators, indeed, get the very title of their rank from the amount of the salaries assigned to them. And when Caesar had actually carried out his promises, the name Augustus was at length bestowed upon him by the senate and by the people.
Therefore they addressed him also in Greek as Sebastos , 17 meaning an august personage, from the passive of the verb sebazo , "to revere. And yet, in order to preserve the appearance of having this power by virtue of the laws and not because of their own domination, the emperors have taken to themselves all the functions, including the titles, of the offices which under the republic and by the free gift of the people were powerful, with the single exception of the dictatorship.
The name of " imperator " is held by them all for life, not only by those who have won victories in battle, but also by those who have not, in token of their independent authority, and this has displaced the titles of "king" and "dictator.
For they have been released from the laws, as the very words in Latin declare; 22 that is, they are free from all compulsion of the laws and are bound by none of the written ordinances. For the appellation " Caesar " or " Augustus " confers upon them no peculiar power, but merely shows in the one case that they are heirs of the family to which they belong, and in the other the splendour of their official position.
At present all of them are, as a rule, bestowed upon the emperors at one and the same time, with the exception of the title of censor; but to the earlier emperors they were voted separately the different times.
Nevertheless, the events occurring after this time can not be recorded in the same manner as those of previous times. Furthermore, the very magnitude of the empire and the multitude of things that occur render accuracy in regard to them most difficult. In the open senate, namely, he dedicated himself to him after the fashion of the Spaniards 24 and advised the others to do the same.
In the year already named, perceiving that the roads outside the walls had become difficult to travel as the result of neglect, he ordered various senators to repair the others at their own expense, and he himself looked after the Flaminian Way , since he was going to lead an army out by that route. He also set out to make an expedition into Britain, but on coming to the provinces of Gaul lingered there.
For the Britons seemed likely to make terms with him, and the affairs of the Gauls were still unsettled, as the civil wars had begun immediately after their subjugation. He took a census of the inhabitants and regulated their life and government.
From Gaul he proceeded into Spain, and established order there also. Thus, he indulged in a great deal of disrespectful gossip about Augustus and was guilty of many reprehensible actions besides; for he not only set up images of himself practically everywhere in Egypt, but also inscribed upon the pyramids a list of his achievements.
After this had happened, many others attacked him and brought numerous indictments against him. But he became so elated over these very honours and so contemptuous of Augustus, that he issued a bulletin that he had handed the city over unimpaired and intact to his successor. For the time being, however, he ordered the aediles to take care that no building took fire, and if anything of the sort did happen, to put the fire out.
Varro invaded their country at many points at the same time, in order that they might not join forces and so be more difficult to subdue; and he conquered them very easily, inasmuch as they attacked his divisions only in small groups. After these achievements in the wars Augustus closed the precinct of Janus, which had been opened because of these wars. First, in honour of the naval victories he completed the building called the Basilica of Neptune and lent it added brilliance by the painting representing the Argonauts.
Next he constructed the Laconian sudatorium. He gave the name "Laconian" to the gymnasium because the Lacedaemonians had a greater reputation at that time than anybody else for stripping and exercising after anointing themselves with oil. It has this name, perhaps because it received among the images which decorated it the statues of many gods, including Mars and Venus; but my own opinion of the name is that, because of its vaulted roof, it resembles the heavens.
And one Gaius Toranius also acquired a good reputation because while tribune he brought his father, although a freedman of somebody or other, into the theatre and made him sit beside him upon the tribunes' bench. Publius Servilius, too, made a name for himself because while praetor he caused to be slain at a festival three hundred bears and other African wild beasts equal in number. Marcellus was given the right to be a senator among the ex-praetors and to stand for the consulship ten years earlier than was customary, while Tiberius was permitted to stand for each office five years before the regular age; and he was at once elected quaestor and Marcellus aedile.
As soon as Augustus had departed from Spain, leaving behind Lucius Aemilius as its governor, the Cantabri and the Astures revolted; and sending word to Aemilius, before revealing to him the least sign whatever of their purpose, they said that they wished to make a present to his army of grain and other things. Their satisfaction, however, was short-lived; for their country was devastated, some of their forts burned, and, worst of all, the hands of all who were caught were cut off, and so they were quietly subdued.
It was conducted by Aelius Gallus, the governor of Egypt, against the country called Arabia Felix, of which Sabos was king. For this, Musa received a great deal of money from both Augustus and the senate, as well as the right to wear gold rings for he was a freedman , and he was granted exemption from taxes, both for himself and for the members of his profession, not only those living at the time but also those of future generations. And he ordered also that a golden image of the deceased, a golden crown, and a curule chair should be carried into the theatre at the Ludi Romani and should be placed in the midst of the officials having charge of the games.
For he well understood that Agrippa was exceedingly beloved by them and he preferred not to seem to be committing the supreme power to him on his own responsibility. Most of them were to perform the same duties as formerly, but two were to be in charge of the financial administration each year.
Augustus, it would appear, so far from disliking the man's devotion and loyalty, actually honoured these qualities in him. During the Feriae there were two prefects of the city for each day; and one of them held the office in spite of the fact that he had not yet the standing even of a youth.
This, the literal translation of legati , was in fact the ordinary Greek term. It is hardly necessary to state that Palatium his given the English "palace.
Verus, and Septimius Severus with his two sons only one of them was pontifex maximus. Mommsen, Staatsrecht , II 2. Caesar, B. Images with borders lead to more information. The thicker the border, the more information. Details here. Cassius Dio. Classical Texts. See my copyright page for details and contact information.
Cassius Dio: The Augustan Settlement: (roman History 53- 55.9)
Reinhold and P. Interpretations of Augustus and His Principate , edited by K. Raaflaub and M. Toher, [Berkeley, ] , and another by J. Readers who shared my anticipation will not be disappointed. The Augustan Settlement does indeed have much to recommend it: a concise introduction to Dio as a historiographer and the issues associated with reading his account of Augustus; a lucid English translation of the facing Greek text; a detailed commentary; nine serviceable maps; and a full index.
Bryn Mawr Classical Review
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