Mohammed A. Al-Izzi, Sadika K. Al-Maliky, N. Adaptation of a population of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller , to laboratory rearing conditions takes six generations. Average larva and pupa periods were 17 and 7 days, respectively; the adult lives 2—10 days.
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The application of nuclear technique for practical controlling of Ectomyelois Ceratoniae zeller Lepidoptera : Pyralidae. Iran ranks the first producer and exporter of pomegranate in the world. Carob moth Ectomyelois ceratiniae Lepidoptera : Pyralidae has also been recognized as an important pest of pomegranate in the country. Due to biology of the pest, the application of pesticide has not been considered practical and the losses to this product are more than 30 percent of the yield.
The application of Sterile Insect Technique is a method that is used on a few insects with the specific characters.
This research was accomplished for evaluation of the practical control of this pest upon application of nuclear methods on pomegranate. The produced pupae young and old were irradiated by gamma radiation and were reared with Irradiated male: Irradiated female: Natural male: Natural female ratios on pomegranate fruits in the cages. The results show that the application of sterile doses and Gy on pupae Young 1,2 days and old days old and releasing ratios to in comparison with the controlled treatment by the releasing ratio of that prevents damage of E.
Seasonal pattern of infestation by the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in pomegranate cultivars. Pomegranate Punica granatum L. However, seasonal variation in infestation and. Essential oils as biological alternatives to protect date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of three Tunisian plants and to evaluate their biological activity against eggs, larvae, and adult insects of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller.
The essential oils extracted from leaves of Thymus capitatus L. The major constituents were Z-caryophyllene The insecticidal effects of essential oils on eggs, larvae, and adults of E. Ovicidal activity of oils was studied by spray on eggs while larvicidal and adulticidal activities were assessed by fumigation and spray. Number of hatched eggs was verified after 10 d, larva and adult mortalities were observed after 6, 12, and 24 h.
Globally, eggs and larvae were the most resistant to the three different oils, needing higher doses to obtain a higher mortality. The spray method was most effective than fumigation. Essential oil extracted from T. Results obtained may suggest that the essential oils of T. The effect of substerilizing doses of gamma radiation on the pupae of the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae Lepidoptera : Pyralidae. We investigated various effects of gamma radiation on the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae , treated with Gy at different pupal ages.
Irradiation resulted in a decrease of adult emergence. This effect was both dose and age dependent. At and Gy, no pupae developed into normal adults when treated at the age of days.
Other emerged moths exhibited various malformations, mostly wing deformities. When pupae were treated with or Gy, fecundity and fertility of both untreated females mated with irradiated males or irradiated females mated with untreated males were drastically reduced. When d old pupae were irradiated with , and Gy, adult morphology, fecundity, fertility and egg hatch were slightly affected. Mating behaviour of irradiated males also was affected. Competitiveness of males irradiated with sub-sterilizing doses varied depending on irradiation dose and number of insects present in the mating cages.
Irradiated virgin female attractiveness is compared to virgin normal females and to the synthetic pheromone lure. After radiation, the virgin females were used to bait delta traps. They were replaced weekly. Attractiveness is assessed by the ability of irradiated females to attract males. It was observed that they were as attractive as the normal ones.
Furthermore, virgin irradiated females were more effective than the synthetic lure. Insect infestation at the harvest was evaluated by counting the damaged fruits. Pomegranates infested by the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae are often rotten with the insect inside. Trees were chosen hazardously among the orchard. After three years of long- season releases, we get a notable. Feeding indices and enzymatic activities of carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller Lepidoptera : pyrallidae on two commercial pistachio cultivars and an artificial diet.
Feeding indices of E. In this paper, we studied the effects of Gamma radiation on the attractiveness of the virgin females of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller, under laboratory and field conditions. Four Gamma radiation doses , , , Gy in addition to the control were studied. We examined also the effects of the age of irradiated females on their attractiveness; in particular, females 24, 48 and 72 hours old were studied.
Laboratory studies showed that females' attractiveness decreased with increasing irradiation dose. For the doses , and Gray, the mean number of males per trap per week was 52, 51 and 50 respectively. On the other hand, for 24 hours old virgin females, the weekly mean number of caught males per trap was 63 while for 48 and 72 old females, the mean number of caught males per trap per week was 54 and 50 respectively.
For field studies, results showed that irradiated females were able to attract wild males. Moreover, their attractiveness was better than the synthetic lure. Developing the F1 sterility technique for the management of the carob moth ectomyelois ceratoniae zeller Lepidoptera : pyralidae in a pomegranate orchards. A pilot sterile insect release program was initiated for the control of the date moth ectromyelois ceratoniae Zeller Lepidoptera : Pyralidae in a pomegranate orchard near Tunisia.
The F1 sterility technique was tested against pest for four successive seasons. Releases were done from June to September each year with a release ratio of 5 to 1 irradiated to non-irradiated. The release assessment was measured in the treated field as the reduction of the percentage of fruit damage and the reduction of percentage of larvae in rotten fruits at harvest.
Results showed that F1 sterility could be a potential method for the control of carob in pomegranate orcharch. Chemical ecology of moths: Role of semiochemicals in host location by Ectomyelois ceratoniae and mate guarding by Heliothis virescens. Semiochemical-based behavioral manipulation has been increasingly implemented in Integrated Pest Management IPM as an environmentally friendly strategy. For many pest species, however, efficient methods have yet to be developed. An efficient sex pheromone attractant is missing in management of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae , a devastating fruit pest, because the major pheromone component is unstable.
To explore the use of host-plant volatiles to attract carob moths, the pomegranate Biological control against the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in oases and in packing houses in Tunisia. The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller is abundant in the Mediterranean countries. It attacks various dry fruit in cultures or in stored products, notably pomegranate, Punica granatum L.
We can find E. To reduce this damage, several control methods have been experimented. Chemical control is the most effective means of control against pests. However, against this species, insecticides seem to be difficult and randomly used, due to the endophytic behaviour of the pyralid and the position of the fruit on the pomegranate tree. Moreover, this method has very ominous repercussions on biological cadence. Besides, it is necessary to look for other control means to allow the preservation of the ecosystem.
In Tunisia, several efforts have been directed at biological control, by using local parasitoids and through usage of the bio-insecticides mainly Bacillus thuringiensis Dhouibi , , Dhouibi and Jemmasi In order to substitute the chemical control and to strengthen the integrated control, other possibilities can be envisaged, for example, the genetic method or the autocidal control, that is, based on mass rearing and the substerile male releases into the natural population.
For the purpose, it provokes the sterility to ulterior generations and evaluates the impact of irradiation on the different biological parameters of emerged adults from treated nymphs and their competitiveness. Dhouibi and Omran and Dhouibi and Tijani have studied the mass rearing of the carob moth pyralid on an artificial diet and the effect of different irradiation doses, especially a substerilising dose, on E.
The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller Lepidoptera : Pyralidae is the most important pest of pomegranate, Punica granatum L. Myrtales: Ponicaceae , in Iran. In this study, 6 amplified fragment length polymorphism primer combinations were used to survey the genetic structure of the geographic and putative host-associated populations of this pest in Iran.
Pairwise differences, Mantel test, multidimensional analysis, cluster analysis and migration rate were calculated for 5 geographic populations of E. In another part of the study, 3 comparisons were performed on pairwise populations that were collected on different hosts pomegranate, fig, pistachio and walnut in same geographic regions.
The results showed high within population variation The Mantel test did not show correlations between genetic and geographic distances. The probable factors that affect genetic distances are discussed. Multidimensional scaling analysis, migration rate and cluster analysis on geographic populations showed that the Arsanjan population was the most different from the others while the Saveh population was more similar to the Sabzevar population. The comparisons didn't show any host fidelity in test populations.
It seems that the ability of E. The results of this study suggest that in spite of the effects of geographic barriers, high within-population genetic variation, migration rate and gene flow can provide the opportunity for emerging new phenotypes or behaviors in pest populations, such as broadening host range, changing egg lying places, or changing over-wintering sites to adapt to difficult conditions such as those caused by intensive control.
First record of Ectomyelois muriscis Lepidoptera : Pyralidae on physic nut Jatropha curcas , a biofuel plant. The natural infestation of fruits and stems of Jatropha curcas L.
Euphorbiaceae by larvae of the pyralid moth Ectomyelois muriscis Dyar Lepidoptera : Pyralidae is reported for the first time. Populations of E. Th e route for almost all aliens to Europe is via importation of plants or plant products. Most alien Lepidoptera established in Europe are also confi ned to man-made habitats, with Evaluation of Lepidoptera population suppression by radiation induced sterility.
Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting. F 1 sterility programmes for other Lepidopteran pest species also are being considered in other countries.
Being the first of a series dealing with the entomofauna of the Madeira and Selvagens Islands, this catalogue is a list of all Lepidoptera recorded from this region of Macaronesia, with references to the relevant literature.
Taxonomic placing : Insecta, Holometabola , Lepidoptera , Pyralidae. Host plants : Polyphagous. In the field the pest develops mainly in Acacia farnesiana Linnaeus, carobs, dates and figs. In storage it infests almonds and diverse nuts. Morphology : The adult moth is about 0. The fully grown larva is mm long, pink, has a brown head and with segmental protuberances that bear small setae. Life cycle : Females of the first generation lay their eggs on the developing pods of A.
The application of nuclear technique for practical controlling of Ectomyelois Ceratoniae zeller Lepidoptera : Pyralidae. Iran ranks the first producer and exporter of pomegranate in the world. Carob moth Ectomyelois ceratiniae Lepidoptera : Pyralidae has also been recognized as an important pest of pomegranate in the country. Due to biology of the pest, the application of pesticide has not been considered practical and the losses to this product are more than 30 percent of the yield. The application of Sterile Insect Technique is a method that is used on a few insects with the specific characters. This research was accomplished for evaluation of the practical control of this pest upon application of nuclear methods on pomegranate. The produced pupae young and old were irradiated by gamma radiation and were reared with Irradiated male: Irradiated female: Natural male: Natural female ratios on pomegranate fruits in the cages.
Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller -- Phycitidae. Although carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae , has been a serious pest of almonds, dates and other crops in Mediterranean countries for many decades, the origin of this insect is probably in west-central Africa. The Cameroon area is a most likely place. In North America, carob moth has invaded and become a pest on tamarind in Florida and dates in California. The external morphology of this insect may be viewed at Adult Moth and Larva. There has been a successful establishment of Goniozus legneri Gordh on carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller attacking almonds in Israel, Egypt and Iran.