Abse, S. Attachment and Sexuality in Clinical Practice. London: Karnac, Journal of Analytical Psychology 51 1 Abse, S. Questions of technique when working with a borderline couple.
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Quantitative characterization of nonstructural carbohydrates of mezcal Agave Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dick. Fructans are the reserve carbohydrates in Agave spp. In mezcal factories, fructans undergoes thermal hydrolysis to release fructose and glucose, which are the basis to produce this spirit. Carbohydrate content determines the yield of the final product, which depends on plant organ, ripeness stage, and thermal hydrolysis.
Thus, a qualitative and quantitative characterization of nonstructural carbohydrates was conducted in raw and hydrolyzed juices extracted from Agave salmiana stems and leaves under three ripeness stages.
By high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC , fructose, glucose, sucrose, xylose, and maltose were identified in agave juice. Only the plant fraction with hydrolysis interaction was found to be significant in the glucose concentration plant. Interactions of the fraction with hydrolysis and ripeness with hydrolysis were statistically significant in fructose concentration. Fructose concentration rose considerably with hydrolysis, but only in juice extracted from ripe agave stems early mature and castrated.
This increase was statistically significant only with acid hydrolysis. Extraction and characterization of Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck fructans. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Aunque los fructanos de Agave angustifolia spp. Steroidal saponins have shown beneficial health effects. Agave spp.
Aguamiel is the sweet edible sap from mature agave , and its quality is influenced by the plant ripening stage. The purpose of this research was to identify and quantitate saponins in aguamiel from Agave americana and Agave salmiana at two ripening stages.
Results proved the presence of saponins derived from kammogenin, manogenin, gentrogenin, and hecogenin. The saponin content in aguamiel from immature A. In both species, saponin content decreased when plants reached sexual maturity. This should be considered before evaluating the effects of Agave spp. Yeast communities associated with artisanal mezcal fermentations from Agave salmiana.
The alcoholic fermentations of two separate musts obtained from Agave salmiana were analyzed. Sugar, ethanol and major volatile compounds concentrations were higher in the first fermentation, which shows the importance of having a quality standard for raw materials, particularly in the concentration of fructans, in order to produce fermented Agave salmiana must with similar characteristics.
The identified yeasts were: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia kluyveri, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Clavispora lusitaniae, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Candida ethanolica and Saccharomyces exiguus. Agave salmiana is a native plant species harvested for the commercial production of mezcal Agave spirits in the highlands of central Mexico. The objective of this study was to identify vegetation changes in natural communities where A. Three plant community categories were identified in the state of Zacatecas based on their history of A.
Species cover, composition, and density were evaluated in field surveys by use category. A gradient of vegetation structure of the communities parallels the duration of A.
The main shrubs were Larrea tridentata, Mimosa biuncifera, Jatropha dioica and Buddleia scordioides while the main Opuntia species were Opuntia leucotricha and Opuntia robusta. We suggest that shrubs may increase with moderate use creating an intermediate successional stage that facilitates the establishment of Opuntia spp.
Long-term Agave use is generating new plant communities dominated by Opuntia spp. Effect of prebiotics of Agave salmiana fed to healthy Wistar rats.
Inulin and other fructans are synthesized and stored in mezcal agave Agave salmiana. Fructans provide several health benefits and have excellent technological properties, but only few data report their physiological effect when added in the diet.
Here, we studied the physiological effects of fructans obtained from A. Results showed favorable changes on Wistar rats when the fructans was added to their diet, including the decrease of the pH in the feces and the increase of the number of lactic acid bacteria CFU g -1 Lactobacillus spp.
Synbiotic diet, developed changes in the reduction of cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations in serum, with statistical differences P salmiana confer beneficial health effects through gut microbiota modulation. Our data underline the advantage of targeting the gut microbiota by colonic nutrients like specific structure of fructans from A.
More studies are necessary to define the role of fructans to develop more solid therapeutic solutions in humans. Characterization of volatile compounds of Mezcal, an ethnic alcoholic beverage obtained from Agave salmiana. Commercial mezcals white, white with worm, rested, rested with worm, and aged produced from Agave salmiana were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry SPME-GC-MS. Thirty-seven compounds were identified, and nine of them were classified as major compounds of mezcal MCM.
Saturated alcohols, ethyl acetate, ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate, and acetic acid form the MCM group. Minor compounds of mezcal group include other alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, large chain ethyl esters, organic acids, furans, terpenes, alkenes, and alkynes. Most of the compounds found in mezcals in this study are similar to those present in tequilas and other alcoholic beverages. However, mezcals contain unique compounds such as limonene and pentyl butanoate, which can be used as markers for the authenticity of mezcal produced from A.
Identification of yeast and bacteria involved in the mezcal fermentation of Agave salmiana. To identify the yeast and bacteria present in the mezcal fermentation from Agave salmiana. The restriction and sequence analysis of the amplified region, between 18S and 28S rDNA and 16S rDNA genes, were used for the identification of yeast and bacteria, respectively. Eleven different micro-organisms were identified in the mezcal fermentation.
Three of them were the following yeast: Clavispora lusitaniae, Pichia fermentans and Kluyveromyces marxianus. The bacteria found were Zymomonas mobilis subsp. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA and ITS sequences showed that microbial diversity present in mezcal is dominated by bacteria, mainly lactic acid bacteria species and Zymomonas mobilis.
Pichia fermentans and K. We identified the community of bacteria and yeast present in mezcal fermentation from Agave salmiana. Full Text Available Saponins have been correlated with the reduction of cancer cell growth and the apoptotic effect of agave sap concentrate. Empirical observations of this artisanal Mexican food have shown that fermentation occurs after agave sap is concentrated, but little is known about the microorganisms that survive after cooking, or their effects on saponins and other metabolites.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in metabolites found in agave A. Microorganisms were isolated by dilution plating and identified by 16S rRNA analysis. Isolates were used to ferment agave sap, and their corresponding butanolic extracts were compared with those that enhanced the cytotoxic activity on colon Caco-2 and liver Hep-G2 cancer cells.
Metabolite changes were investigated by mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Among 69 isolated microorganisms, the actinomycetes Arthrobacter globiformis and Gordonia sp. From the ions that were mainly responsible for variation among fermented samples at 48 h, 96 h, and h, four were correlated to anticancer activity. It was shown that magueyoside B, a kammogenin glycoside, was found at higher intensities in the samples fermented with Gordonia sp.
These findings showed that microorganisms from agave sap concentrate change agave sap metabolites such as saponins. Butanolic extracts obtained after agave sap fermentation with Arthrobacter globiformis or Gordonia sp. Maguey, Agave salmiana , is an important plant for the "pulque" beverage and functional food industries; however, it has several constraints for elite and homogeneous plant production.
In this study, a micropropagation process was established to generate in vitro plants. The effect of the method on metabolite content and antioxidant AOX activity in regenerated plants was evaluated. Young germinated plantlets were micropropagated from axillary shoots using Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with L2 vitamins, 0.
Total soluble sugars from the aqueous fraction and total phenolic acids, total saponins, and AOX activity of the methanol fraction were determined in wild-type WT plants, in in vitro IN plants, and ex vitro acclimated plants EN. However, no correlation was found between the AOX activity and total phenolic acids or total saponins. Micropropagated plants of A. The micropropagation process could be used as a platform for phytochemical enhancement of Agave plants.
Micropropagation of Agave salmiana : Means to production of antioxidant and bioactive principles. Full Text Available Maguey, Agave salmiana , is an important plant for the pulque beverage and functional food industries; however, it has several constraints for elite and homogeneous plant production. Total soluble sugars from the aqueous fraction and total phenolic acids, total saponins, and AOX activity of the methanol fraction were determined in wild type WT plants, in in vitro IN plants, and ex vitro acclimated plants EN.
Kinetic study of the thermal hydrolysis of Agave salmiana for mezcal production. The kinetics of the thermal hydrolysis of the fructans of Agave salmiana were determined during the cooking step of mezcal production in a pilot autoclave. A simple kinetic model of the depolymerization of fructans to monomers and other reducing sugars and of the degradation of reducing sugars to furans [principally 5- hydroxymethyl furfural, HMF] was developed.
From this model, the rate constants of the reactions were calculated, as well as the pre-exponential factors and activation energies of the Arrhenius equation. The model was found to fit the experimental data well. The tradeoff between a maximum fructan hydrolysis and a critical furan concentration in allowing for the best ethanol yield during fermentation was investigated. Heterologous expression of Fusarium oxysporum tomatinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases its resistance to saponins and improves ethanol production during the fermentation of Agave tequilana Weber var.
This paper describes the effect of the heterologous expression of tomatinase from Fusarium oxysporum f. The gene FoTom1 under the control of the S. Two transformants were randomly selected for further study designated Y and Y Control strain Y45 was inhibited at 50 muM alpha-tomatine, in contrast, transformants Y and Y did not show inhibition at muM.
Tomatinase activity was detected by HPLC monitoring tomatine disappearance and tomatidine appearance in the supernatants of culture medium. Maximum tomatinase activity was observed in the transformants after 6 h, remaining constant during the following 24 h.
No tomatinase activity was detected in the parental strain. Moreover, the transformants were able to grow and produce ethanol in a mix of Agave tequilana Weber var. Separation of potentially bioactive components from foods and plant extracts is one of the main challenges for their study.
Centrifugal partition chromatography has been a successful technique for the screening and identification of molecules with bioactive potential, such as steroidal saponins. Agave is a source of steroidal saponins with anticancer potential, though the activity of these compounds in concentrated agave sap has not been yet explored. In this study, fast centrifugal partition chromatography FCPC was used coupled with in vitro tests on HT cells as a screening procedure to identify apoptotic saponins from an acetonic extract of concentrated agave sap.
The three most bioactive fractions obtained by FCPC at partition coefficients between 0.
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