A review of current criteria for the diagnosis of categories related with vascular cognitive impairment, in particular the nomenclature, diagnostic criteria, and differential clinical-radiological findings.. The criteria for the diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment have evolved, but available criteria were designed basically for differentiating between vascular dementia and dementia due to Alzheimer disease, and for research purposes. Nevertheless, in clinical practice precise elements are required for: 1 Clinical diagnosis of dementia and mild cognitive impairment; 2 Clinical and neuroimaging criteria for identification of the various cerebrovascular lesions associated with cognitive dysfunction, and 3 A formulation of the aetiogenic-pathogenic relationship between cognitive impairment and cerebrovascular lesions. For this reason, a review was carried out on the diagnostic elements of vascular cognitive impairment categories, classification, and their most relevant characteristics. It highlights the characteristic for the diagnosis of multi-infarction dementia, strategic single infarct dementia, small vessel disease with dementia, mixed dementia, and vascular mild cognitive impairment..

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Introduction: Traumatic brain injury TBI is a global medical problem. After TBI patients may show motor, behavioral and cognitive disabilities. Objective: The intention of this paper is to develop the patho-physiology of the head injury, beginning with epidemiological, anatomical, and physiological bases.

Discussion and conclusions: The knowledge of the pathophysiology of TBI will help us to have a context with in we will try to describe and conceptualize in general way the most important patho-physiological process related to the head injury. It is not pretense of this paper get in deep of the concepts exposed here, since it would generate huge chapters of thematic discussion. The pretense is to take a panoramic review of the head injury to understand the foremost characteristics and definition, as a whole of clinical and structural manifestation of this pathology.

Keywords: Traumatic brain injury; Primary lesion; Secondary lesion; Difuse axonal injury. Piel y tejido conjuntivo. Su papel principal es el protector. Doctrina de Monroe-Kelly y de los compartimentos cerebrales. Deterioro retardado. Descrito por primera vez por Schneider en Hematoma epidural.

Presencia de hematoma en el espacio epidural. Corresponde al Hematoma subdural. Corresponde al 5. Grado 2, moderada. Grado 3, severa. Corresponde al 3.

Esplenio del cuerpo calloso. LAD grado II. Siesjo BK. Mechanism of ischemic brain damage. Problems in critical care. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott; Cooper P.

Head injury. New York: McDraw-Hill. Medical Publishing Division. Greenberg M. Handbook of neurosurgery. New York: Thieme Medical Publisher; Perioperative management on sever head injuries in adults, operative neurosurgical technique.

Philadelphia: WB Sounders Co; Proctor A. ATLS Manual. American College of Surgeons; Ducker S. Effect of intracranial pressure monitoring and aggressive treatment on mortality in severe head injury. J Neurosurg. Moderate head injury; a guide of initial management. Taneda M, Kataoka K. Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage as a predictable indicator of delayed ischemic symptoms.

Guidelines for the management of severe head injury. Brain Trauma Foundation. Eur J Emerg Med. Unterberg A, Kienning KL. Multimodal monitoring in patients with head injury. Evaluations of the effects of treatment on cerebral oxygenation.

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Sahuquillo J, Poca MA. Diffuse axonal injury after head trauma. All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Services on Demand Article. Spanish pdf Article in xml format Article references How to cite this article Automatic translation Send this article by e-mail. Trombosis seno venoso dural. Insuficiencia adrenal.

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It is a potentially difficult diagnosis to make on imaging alone, especially on CT as the finding can be subtle, however, it has the potential to result in severe neurological impairment. The patients at risk of diffuse axonal injury belong to the same cohort as those who suffer traumatic brain injury and as such young men are very much over-represented. Typically, patients who are shown to have diffuse axonal injury have loss of consciousness at the time of the accident. Post-traumatic coma may last a considerable time and is often attributed to coexistent more visible injury e. As such the diagnosis is often not suspected until later when patients fail to recover neurologically as expected. Diffuse axonal injury is the result of shearing forces, typically from rotational acceleration most often a deceleration.


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